The Effectiveness of Problem Based Learning (PBL) Based Socioscientific Issue (SSI) to Improve Critical Thinking Skills

  • Muflichatu Nur Fita Science Education Study Progam, Postgraduate Program, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Budi Jatmiko Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Elok Sudibyo Department of Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Indonesia
Keywords: PBL Model, SSI, Critical Thinking Skills, Student Respon, Effective


The purpose of this research was to see how effective the Problem Based Learning (PBL) based Socioscientific Issues (SSI) is at improving critical thinking skills. The sample used was grade seven in SMPN 4 Lamongan with 2 classes and each class contains 15 students. The design of the learning materials trial used  One-Group pre-test post-test design. Tests of critical thinking skills and student answer sheets were used to collect data. Techniques of data analysis used N-gain, paired t-test, and independent t-test. The result of this research is as follows: The effectiveness in terms of the critical thinking skills test the category increase is high, there is a significant difference between the test before and after learning with PBL based SSI and there is no difference N-gain in the two group classes and students' responses are classified as very good. Based on data analysis, it can be concluded that PBL with SSI is effective to improve critical thinking skills. The implications of this study are PBL-based SSI has the potential to be an innovative solution and alternative for improving critical thinking skills.


Download data is not yet available.


Ahaddin, M. A., Jatmiko, B., & Supardi, Z, A, (2020). The improvement of critical thinking skills of primary school students through guided inquiry learning models with integrated peer instructions. Studies in Learning and Teaching, 1(2), 104-111.

Alfiyanti, I. F., Jatmiko, B., & Wasis. (2020). The effectiveness of Predict Observe Explain (POE) model with PhET to improve critical thinking skills of senior high school students. Studies in Learning and Teaching, 1(2), 76-85.

Arends, R. I. (2013). Belajar untuk mengajar, Learning to teach. Salemba Humanika.

Amin, S., Utaya, S., Bachri, S., Sumarmi, & Susilo, S., (2020). Effect of problem-based learning on critical thinking skills and environmental attitude. Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists, 8(2), 743-755.

Bagia, P. P. A. (2016). Pengembangan lembar kegiatan siswa berorientasi keterampilan proses siswa pada materi elektrolit dan nonelektrolit dan submateri reaksi oksidasi reduksi. Unesa Journal of Chemical Education, 5(2), 452-456.

Bossér, U., Lundin, M., Lindahl, M., & Linder, C. (2015). Challenges faced by teachers implementing socio-scientific issues as core elements in their classroom practices. European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 3(2), 159–176.

Davut Gul, M., & Akcay, H. (2020). Structuring a new socioscientific issues (SSI) based instruction model: Impacts on pre-service science teachers’ (PSTs) critical thinking skills and dispositions. International Journal of Research in Education and Science, 6(1), 141–159.

Demirel, M. (2009). Lifelong learning and schools in the twenty-first century. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 1709–1716.

Dimyati & Mudjiono. (2009). Belajar & Pengajaran. PT Rineka Cipta

Ennis, R. H. (1993). Critical thinking Assessment. Theory into Practice, 32(3), 179-186.

Facione, P. A. (2011). Critical thinking : What it is and why it counts. Insight Assessment.

Fadilah. MS, S., Jatmiko, B., & Prastowo, T. (2020). Validity and effectiveness of argument-driven inquiry model with contextual approaches to improve critical thinking skills in science learning. Studies in Learning and Teaching, 1(2), 66-75.

Gotoh, Y. (2016). Development of critical thinking with metacognitive regulation (ED571408). ERIC.

Greenstein, L. (2012). Assessing 21st century skills a guide to evaluating mastery and authentic learning. Corwin a Sage Company.

Gutierez, S. B. (2015). Integrating socio-scientific issues to enhance the bioethical decision-making skills of high school students. International Education Studies, 8(1), 142–151.

Hmelo-Silver, C. E. (2004). Problem-based learning: What and how do students learn?. Educational Psychology Review, 16(3), 235-266.

Kardoyo, Nurkhin, A., Muhsin, & Pramusinto, H. (2020). Problem-based learning strategy: Its impact on students’ critical and creative thinking skills. European Journal of Educational Research, 9(3), 1141–1150.

Kong, L. N., Qin, B., Zhou, Y. Q., Mou, S. Y., & Gao, H. M. (2014). The effectiveness of problem-based learning on development of nursing students’ critical thinking: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 51(3), 458-469.

Lapuz, A. M. E., & Fulgencio, M. N. (2020). Improving the critical thinking skills of secondary school students using problem-based learning. International Journal of Academic Multidisciplinary Research, 4(1), 1-7.

Orozco, J. A., & Yangco, R. T. (2016). Problem-based learning: Effects on thinking skills in biology problem-based learning: effects on critical and creative thinking skills in biology. Asian Journal of Biology Education, 9.

Pratiwi, Y. N., Rahayu, S., & Fajaroh, F. (2016). Socioscientific issues (SSI) in reaction rates topic and its effect on the critical thinking skills of high school students. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 5(2), 164–170.

Riduwan. (2013). Skala pengukuran variabel-variabel penelitian. Alfabeta.

Santos, L. (2017). The role of critical thinking in science education. Journal Of Education And Practice, 8(20).

Silva, A. B. D, Bispo, A. C. K. D. A., Rodriguez, D. G., & Vasquez, F. I. F. (2018). Problem-based learning: A proposal for structuring PBL and its implications for learning among students in an undergraduate management degree program. REGE Revista de Gestão, 25(2), 160–177.

Slavin, R. E. (2011). Psikologi Pendidikan Teori dan Praktik Jilid 1. Indeks Jakarta.

Suryanti, H. H. S., & Supeni, S. (2019). A Problem Based Learning (PBL) model in developing students’ soft skills aspect. International Journal of Higher Education, 8(8), 62–69.

Sugiyono. (2016). Metode penelitian pendidikan (Pendekatan kuantitatif, kualitatif dan R&D). Alfabeta

Suprihatiningrum, J. (2014). Strategi Pembelajaran. R-Ruzz Media.

Thakur, P., Dutt, S., & Chauhan, A. (2018). Learning biology through problem based learning – Perception of students. i-manager’s Journal of Educational Technology, 15(2).

Topcu, M. S. (2010). Development of attitudes towards socioscientific issues scale for undergraduate students. Evaluation & Research in Education, 23(1), 51-67.

Tosuncuoglu, I. (2018). Place of critical thinking in EFL. International Journal of Higher Education, 7(4).

Wilsa, A. W., Mulyani, S., Susilowati, E., & Rahayu, E. S. (2017). Problem based learning berbasis socio-scientific issue untuk mengembangkan kemampuan berpikir kritis dan komunikasi siswa. Journal of Innovative Science Education, 6(1), 129–138.

Zeidler, D. L., Sadler, T. D., Simmons, M. L., & Howes, E. V. (2005). Beyond STS: A research‐based framework for socioscientific issues education. Science education, 89(3), 357-377.

How to Cite
Fita, M. N., Jatmiko, B., & Sudibyo, E. (2021). The Effectiveness of Problem Based Learning (PBL) Based Socioscientific Issue (SSI) to Improve Critical Thinking Skills . Studies in Learning and Teaching, 2(3), 1-9.